Chu Zhou's History
Chu Zhou is a very historical and cultural city.
Back to the ancient, people have started to work on this piece of land. Many culture remains from the New Stone Tool Age have been found. During the eras of Xia, Shang and Zhou, there spread some tribal kingdoms, such as ZhongLi and Jiao Kingdoms. The "Huai Yi" tribe, after many years of development and fighting, had gradually melted into the Hua Xia civilization.
During the Spring and Autumn era, Chu Zhou area had been involved in the battles among different empires. Chu Zhou area was then occupied by Wu and Chu kingdoms and was so called "Wu Tou Chu Wei". Afterwards the union of all the empires into Qing was followed by the fighting between Chu and Han. There were many tragic stories of Qing and Chu.
During the three-kingdom ear, Chu Zhou had become the fighting field of Wei and Wu. During the "'Eight Emperor' fights" in West Jin Dynasty, the LangYa King SiMa, Rui had once hidden in the MaTou Peak in the southwest of Chu Zhou. Hence the hill was named Lang Ya Mountain.
After three hundred years of wars, in Sui and Tang Dynasty, the city of Chu Zhou was established. In AD 589, the city was named Chu Zhou. The officers Li You Qing, Wei Ying Wu and Li De Yu had all governed Chu Zhou and left a series of antiques and poems over.
In the North Song Dynasty, OuYang, Xiu was degraded and expelled to Chu Zhou and created the well-renowned essay “Zui Weng Ting Ji” and “Yong Le Ting Ji”, where he described the natural beauty and local culture in Chu Zhou. Later Su, Shi rewrote the two essays as mottos. Afterwards, Chu Zhou and Lang Ya Mountain became very famous all over the country. During South Song Period, Chang and Huai Rivers and their neighborhoods became the front field to fight the Jin Army. The famous general and poet Xin, Qi Ji was governing Chu Zhou. He had been stabilizing people’s living, reducing tax, developing economy and training army. Chu Zhou had hence taken on a new look. Song culture and economic development had imposed important influence on the history of Chu Zhou.
Later in Yuan Dynasty, Zhu Yuan Zhang, who was born in a very poor peasants’ family in Feng Yang County, had organized an army fighting against Yuan Empire. After more than ten years of battles, he overrode Yuan Dynasty and established Ming Dynasty. Feng Yang Fu had once built up the palace for Zhu Yuan Zhang and Chu Zhou as the capital. Now the remains of Feng Yang royal city and royal tomb had been listed as one of the key protected historical places in our country.
In Qing Dynasty, there appeared many famous intellectuals in Chu Zhou, for example, the scholar Dai, Lan Fen, female scholar Wang Zhen Yi and Wu family etc. They all have very important roles in the history of Chu Zhou culture. Wu Jing Zi, despite of his diseases, had completed the masterpiece “Ru Lin Wai Shi”. The novel had been spread all over the world during the following three hundred years.
Later in Qing Dynasty, during the late period of Tai Ping Kingdom, the north of ChangJiang River and the east of An Hui had become an important fighting field involved in the battles between the Tai Ping Army and Qing Army. In 1858, there broke the famous "Wu Yi battle".
During the anti-emporium wars, Chu Zhou had experience the Xin Hai Revolution and "May 4 Incident". The east of An Hui was one of the basic camps of the anti-Japanese wars. The famous officials Liu Shao Qi, Chen Yi, Zhang yun Yi and Luo Bing Hui had all been working here. In the January of 1949, the whole east part of An Hui was liberated. The new Chu County Administration Committee was set up. There are nine subsidiary counties.
After the establishment of the new country, Chu Zhou had experience many years of development. In 1979, the Xiao Gang village in Feng Yang initiated the "Da Bao Gan" and pioneered the revolution of the new China.
In the December of 1992, the government recognized Chu Zhou as a province-level city. Nowadays, Chu Zhou is developing very fast in its course of industrialization and urbanization. A new industrial and touristic city is now set up on the north bank of Chang Jiang River.
Chu Zhou is located in the east of An Hui Province and on the west edge of Chang Jiang triangle Zone. It is also called Wan Dong. Its geographical location is north 31°51′一33°13′and east 117°09′一119°13’. Its total area is 13,300 square kms. From southeast to north, It is connected with NanJing, YangZhou and HuaiAn in JiangSu province.
Chu Zhou is close to both rivers and seas and it connects the east to the west. It has very good geographical location and convenient transport. Bejing-Shanghai Railway, Hefei-Nanjing and Bengbu-Nanjing freeways lie across the city of Chu Zhou. The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Nanjing-Xi'an railway that are both still under construnction, will lie across the city of Chu Zhou as well. The water transport from and to Chu Zhou through Chang Jiang River is very convenient. The straight distance between the city of Chu Zhou and Nanjing is approximately 50 km. Chu Zhou has become one of the partner cities of Nanjing. It takes only one hour to drive from Chu Zhou to Nanjing Lu Kou international Airport.
Yangtze River and Huai River extend through Chuzhou City. The physiognomy of the whole city can be divided into three categories , hills land, downland and plain area and the topography is high in the west and low in the east. The highest mountain in the whole city is the North General Ridge in the area of Nanjiao, the altitude of which is 399.2m. Around the hill lands scatter platforms and wave-shaped stripes, which form the downland. The area around Chu River, the bank of Huai River, Nvshan Lake and Gaoyou Lake is the main plain area.