Anhui has the status of connecting the east with the west in China's transportation. After years of large-scale and centralized investment and construction, the transportation infrastructure in the province has been promoted remarkably. The province has established a fast and readily accessed network of communications consisting of highways, railroads, aviation and inland waterways.
Hefei-Nanjing Expressway, Hefei-Wuhu Expressway, Hefei-Anqing Expressway, Hefei-Xuzhou Expressway, Wuhu-Xuancheng Expressway, Ningguo-Qianqiuguan Expressway, Hefei-Tongling-Huangshan Expressway, Xuancheng-Guangde Expressway, Anhui section of Lianyungang-Huoerguosi Expressway, Anhui section of Sihong-Xuchang Expressway, Anhui section of Nanjing-Luoyang Expressway, the Expressway along the Yangtze River in Anhui, Ma’anshan Yangtze River Bridge, Second Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge, and Wangdong Yangtze River Bridge (connecting Wangjiang County with Dongzhi County) form a high-speed transport system presenting five vertical lines and nine horizontal lines. They have enabled the province to be more easily accessed to other parts of the areas in the Yangtze River Delta and West China. By the end of 2018, the total highway mileage of the province increases to 209,000 kilometers. Of which, the total expressway mileage reaches 4,836 kilometers. The 16 cities under the jurisdiction of the province are all connected with expressways. It takes only 3 hours by car to pass through the province from the east to the west and only 6 hours from the south to the north of the province. The highway network system provides a better access to any parts of China for the province. The convenient and efficient highway network is increasingly improved. The provincial first-class trunk highway reaches 4,864 kilometers. The provincial second-class and above second-class trunk highway extends 21,000 kilometers. The goal has been accomplished that all townships are connected with asphalt (cement) roads, and all administrative villages with necessary conditions are connected with asphalt (cement) roads.
The main frame of the high-speed railway (HSR) network centered on Hefei has been initially formed. Anhui stands out increasingly as an important hub in the national railway network. A number of high-speed railways have been completed construction and put into operation, including high-speed railways of Hefei-Nanjing, Hefei-Wuhan, Beijing-Shanghai, Hefei-Bengbu, Hefei-Fuzhou, Nanjing-Anqing, Zhengzhou-Xuzhou, Hangzhou-Huangshan, and regular-speed railways of Fuyang-Lu'an, Suzhou-Huainan, and Lujiang-Tongling.
Currently, the province's total mileage of operating railway is 4,445 kilometers. Of which, the high-speed railway reaches 1,510 kilometers. Trunk railways cover the province's 16 cities and 47 counties. Of which, high-speed railways reach 14 cities and 16 counties. Existing high-speed railways connect the province with the 4 municipalities directly under the central government, 14 provincial capitals and more than 50 prefecture-level cities.
A total number of 8 inter-regional trunk passages high-speed railways have been started construction successively, including Anhui sections of Shangqiu-Hefei-Hangzhou, Zhengzhou-Fuyang, Hefei-Anqing, Anqing-Jiujiang and Nanchang-Jingdezhen-Huangshan, and Hefei-Anqing-Jiujiang high-speed railways. The total mileage of the new railways extends 1,160 kilometers (including 1,122 kilometers of high-speed railways), with a total investment of 170.8 billion yuan.
The planning and construction of urban rail transit will be accelerated. Urban rail transit encompasses a broad range of urban and suburban electric passenger rail mass transit systems including subway, light rail, tram and maglev. Hefei Urban Rail Transit (abbreviated Hefei Metro) Line 1 and Line 2 have entered service. Line 3, Line 4 and Line 5 are now under construction.
There are now four transportation airports in service in Anhui Province. They are located respectively in Hefei, Huangshan, Fuyang and Chizhou. Anqing has a military-civilian airport.
Scheduled direct flight service operates from Anhui to more than 130 major domestic destinations. Direct flights from Anhui to domestic and overseas cities are 113 in number and schedules change occasionally. International and regional flights from Anhui are regularly operated to Moscow, Seoul, Bangkok, Siem Reap, Phuket, Nha Trang, Phnom Penh and Taipei, and Macau. Customized cargo flights are also operated between Hefei and Chicago of the USA, Hanoi of Vietnam and Shenzhen. In 2018, 13.6 million passengers traveled through the province's four airports and 75,000 tons of cargo and mail were shipped through them.
The total mileage of the province's waterway reaches 6,612 kilometers. The navigable mileage is 5,728 kilometers.
Since the beginning of 2018, Anhui has been accelerating the adjustment of the overall planning of Hefei port, Bozhou port, Fuyang port, and Bengbu port, coordinating the advance work of the double-line ship lock at Linhuaigang Water Conservancy Project along the Huaihe River, and renovation and reinforcement of the Hui River, the Guo River waterways project. The priority is to accelerate the construction of the Yangtze-River-to-Huaihe-River Water Diversion Project, part of the South-North Water Transfer Project that is a multi-decade infrastructure mega-project. The province speeds up the construction of waterways for tributaries of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River such as the Qingtong River, Qiupu River and Fenquan River. The construction of standardized, specialized and large-scale public ports along the Yangtze River and Huaihe River are supported by the province.
Throughout the province 25,100 ships are operated with the capacity exceeding 47.07 million dwt. In 2018, more freight passed through the province's ports. In total, 510 million tonnes were handled. Container throughput was also increased considerably by volume to 1.487 million TEU (the standard unit for containers). Throughout the year, 2.4 million passengers and 1.15 billion tons of cargo were transported by water.