Anhui has the status of connecting the east with the west in China’s transportation. After years of large-scale and centralized investment and construction, the transportation infrastructure in the province has been promoted remarkably. The province has established a fast and readily accessed network of communications consisting of highways, railroads, aviation and inland waterways.
Hefei-Nanjing Expressway, Hefei-Wuhu Expressway, Hefei-Anqing Expressway, Hefei-Xuzhou Expressway, Wuhu-Xuancheng Expressway, Ningguo-Qianqiuguan Expressway, Hefei-TonglingHuangshan Expressway, Xuancheng-Guangde Expressway, Anhui section of Lianyungang-Huoerguosi Expressway, Anhui section of SihongXuchang Expressway, Anhui section of Nanjing-Luoyang Expressway, the Expressway along the Yangtze River in Anhui, Ma’anshan Yangtze River Bridge, Second Wuhu Yangtze River Bridge, and Wangdong Yangtze River Bridge (connecting Wangjiang County with Dongzhi County) form a high-speed transport system presenting ﬁve vertical lines and nine horizontal lines. They have enabled the province to be more easily accessed to other parts of the areas in the Yangtze River Delta and West China. By the end of 2017, the total highway mileage of the province increases to 203,000 kilometers. Of which, the total expressway mileage reaches 4,673 kilometers. The 16 cities under the jurisdiction of the province are all connected with expressways. It takes only 3 hours by car to pass through the province from the east to the west and only 6 hours from the south to the north of the province. The highway network system provides a better access to any parts of China for the province. The convenient and efﬁcient highway network is increasingly improved. The provincial first-class trunk highway reaches 4,151 kilometers. The provincial second-class and above second-class trunk highway extends 19,700 kilometers.
The main frame of the high-speed railway (HSR) network centered on Hefei has been initially formed. Anhui stands out increasingly as an important hub in the national railway network. A number of highspeed railways have been completed construction, including highspeed railways of Hefei-Bengbu, Hefei-Fuzhou, Nanjing-Anqing, Anhui section of Zhengzhou-Xuzhou, South Ring of Hefei Railway Hub and South Passenger Station. Currently, the province’s total mileage of operating high-speed railway reaches 1,430 kilometers, accounting for one third of the province’s total mileage of operating railways. A number of inter-regional trunk passages high-speed railways have been started construction successively, including Anhui sections of Shangqiu-HefeiHangzhou, Hangzhou-Huangshan, and Hefei-Anqing-Jiujiang high-speed railways. At present, with Hefei as the center, a readily-accessed high speed railway network has taken shape. The network is termed as “1+4+4” HSR Grid, meaning one line running north-south (vertical), four lines running east-west (horizontals) and four lines extending to different directions that would connect Hefei with economically developed regions of the country, including Beijing, Shanghai (Nanjing), Hangzhou, Fuzhou, Shenzhen (Nanchang), Chengdu (Wuhan), and Xi’an (Zhengzhou). The province’s general railway network of the province is further improved, with a total mileage of 2935 km. Urban rail transit planning and construction have been started in an overall way. Urban rail transit encompasses a broad range of urban and suburban electric passenger rail mass transit systems including subway, light rail, tram and maglev. Hefei Urban Rail Transit (abbreviated Hefei Metro) Line 1 and Line 2 have entered service. Line 3, Line 4 and Line 5, as well as Wuhu Urban Rail Transit Line 1 and Line 2 are now under construction.
There are ﬁve transportation airports in service in Anhui Province. They are Hefei Xinqiao Airport, Huangshan Tunxi Airport, Chizhou Jiuhuashan Airport, Fuyang Xiguan Airport and Anqing Tianzhushan Airport. Scheduled direct flight service operates from Anhui to more than 70 major domestic destinations. Flights from Anhui are flying to 16 international destinations in 11 countries (regions). Direct flights from Anhui to domestic and overseas cities are 67 in number and schedules change occasionally. International and regional flights from Anhui are regularly operated to Bali Island of Indonesia, Siem Reap of Cambodia, Republic of Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Flights are also scheduled from Hefei Xinqiao Airport to Egypt, the first intercontinental direct flight. Customized cargo flights are also operated between Guangzhou-HefeiLos Angeles, and Hefei-Shenzhen. In 2017, 11.417 million passengers traveled through the province’s five airports and 68,200 tons of cargo and mail were shipped through them, increased by 25.07 percent and 9.2 percent respectively.
The total mileage of the province’s waterway reaches 6,612.01 kilometers. The navigable mileage is 5,728.62 kilometers. Some important projects such as Yingshang Double-line Shiplock (devices used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways) at the Shaying River and Xuanzhou Comprehensive Wharf at the Shuiyang River have been completed. Some other projects including the renovation of the trunk of the Huaihe River and navigable passage of the Guohe River as well as the reconstruction of Wuhu Huayi Chemical Terminal have been started construction. The construction of the Yangtze-River-to-Huaihe-River Water Diversion Project, part of the South-North Water Transfer Project that is a multi-decade infrastructure mega-project in China, Nanping Shipping Locks, and Zhengpo Port Railway Dedicated Line has progressed smoothly. In 2017, throughout the province 25,500 ships are operated with the capacity exceeding 46.2663 million dwt. The structure of transport capacity was further optimized. The passenger trafﬁc, passenger turnover, freight and cargo turnover were 2.53 million, 40.62 million people/kilometer, 114 million tons, 550.3 billion ton/kilometer respectively, increased by 18.78 percent, 0.17 percent, 2.92 percent and 4.6 percent respectively.